Silica: An Important Nutrient for Soil Health, Crop Production and Stress Mitigation

The Silica in Fertoz Rock Phosphate is Beneficial to Stress Mitigation

There is a global demand for increased crop production. Major threats to productivity hinder our ability to produce healthy, high yielding crops. Soil salinity, drought, flood, abnormal temperature, nutrient deficiencies, pests, and diseases are some of the plant stressors. Rock phosphate is an important fertilizer input not only for the health of the soil and crop, but also to improve resistance and tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses through the natural presence of silica. Silica alone exhibits the following benefits according to studies.

  • Improves plant growth, crop quality and beneficial yields
  • Plays an important role in carbon and nutrient cycling, and carbon bio-sequestration
  • Improves drought tolerance in plants
  • Reduces water loss through transpiration
  • Promotes root water uptake
  • Maintain cellular membrane integrity
  • Increase chlorophyll content
  • Maintains water potential through increased K+ concentration in shoots and grains
  • Increases photosynthesis and enzymatic activity
  • Improves plant antioxidant defense system
  • Helps to maintain mineral balance and mediates nutrient uptake
  • Increased resistance of plants to plant pathogens by fungal diseases
  • Natural, safe for the environment, and organic approved
  • Mitigates negative effect of salinity on plant growth, grain yield and nutrient uptake
  • Enhances lodging resistance
  • Better resistance to winter conditions
  • Improves membrane integrity, structure and function
  • Mitigates boron, potassium, phosphorus and iron deficiency

Silica research has also shown specific benefits in various crop types and geographies.

CEREALS

Noticed increased shoot height, leaf density, spike density during harvest, number of kernels per spike, increased mass of 1000 grains.

 

 

 

 

CORN

Observed more grains per cob and greater mass. A China study saw a 5.6-10.4% yield increase.

SOYBEAN

More pods per plant, more seeds per pod, increased mass of 1000 grains, and significantly higher yields. Average yield increase of 11% in china study.

OILSEED RAPE

Less plant loss in winter and larger seeds.

SUGAR BEET

Higher fresh root mass, root yield and sugar yield.

POTATOES

Tubers with larger fresh mass, dry tuber weight, tuber yield, and enriched and greater skin cell area. Inhibition of potato blight and soft rot on leaves and tubers.

HORTICULTURE

Reduced gray mold and crown rot of strawberries, plus higher yields. Larger lettuce heads. More fruits per plant on cucumber, melon and zucchini. Reduced cracking and intensity of scabbing in apples and cherries respectively.

 

 

 

 

SILICON LIT REVIEW – EUROPE

Silicon is commonly and effectively used in greenhouse vegetable production and should be adopted more frequently in agricultural fields.

LIVESTOCK RESEARCH

Feeding silicon treated silage to milking cows improved milk yields, total solids, protein and milk fat. Less microorganisms and somatic cells were observed.

TOMATO STUDY

Under water stress, root and shoot growth is inhibited and chlorophyll and carotenoid levels are low. Addition of silica promotes photosynthesis and almost reverses the effects.

DROUGHT STUDY – WHEAT

Silica resulted in 41% less leakage of electrolytes, and 40% increase in protein production.

 

 

 

 

 

References

GENERAL

Arkadiusz Artyszak. Effect of Silicon Fertilization on Crop Yield Quantity and Quality—A Literature Review in Europe. Department of Agronomy,Warsaw University of Life Sciences, 159 Nowoursynowska St., 02-776 Warsaw, Poland; [email protected]; Tel.: +48-22-59-32-702 Received: 29 March 2018; Accepted: 4 July 2018; Published: 6 July 2018

Han Y Q, Wen J H, Peng Z P, Zhang D Y, Hou M L. 2018. Effects of silicon amendment on the occurrence of rice insect pests and diseases in a field test. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 2172–2181.

Li Z C, Song Z L, Yang X M, Song A L, Yu C X, Wang T, Xia S P, Liang Y C. 2018. Impacts of silicon on biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nutrients in croplands. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 2182–2195.

Yan G C, Nikolic M, Ye M J, Xiao Z X, Liang Y C. 2018. Silicon acquisition and accumulation in plant and its significance for agriculture. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 2138–2150.

Zhang Y, Shi Y, Gong H J, Zhao H L, Li H L, Hu Y H, Wang Y C. 2018. Beneficial effects of silicon on photosynthesis of tomato seedlings under water stress. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 2151–2159.

Botta, A.; Rodrigues, F.A.; Sierras, N.; Marin, C.; Cerda, J.M.; Brossa, R. Evaluation of Armurox® (complex

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Yongchao_Liang_· Miroslav_Nikolic Richard_Bélanger_· Haijun_GongAlin_Song Silicon in Agriculture From Theory to Practice. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015. Book.

 CEREALS

White, B.; Tubana, B.S.; Babu, T.; Mascagni, H., Jr.; Agostinho, F.; Datnoff, L.E.; Harrison, S. Effect of silicate slag application on wheat grown under two nitrogen rates. Plants 2017, 6, 47. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

Hanafy Ahmed, A.H.; Harb, E.M.; Higazy, M.A.; Morgan, S.H. Effect of silicon and boron foliar applications on wheat plants grown under saline soil conditions. Int. J. Agric. Res. 2008, 3, 1–26.

Walsh, O.; Mc Clintic-Chess, J.; Steven, B. Rate and application time of plant silicon on winter wheat yield and quality. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon in Agriculture, Bengaluru, India, 24–28 October 2017; p. 148.

Abro, S.A.; Qureshi, R.; Soomro, F.M.; Mirbahar, A.A.; Jakhar, G.S. Effects of silicon levels on growth and yield of wheat in silty loam soil. Pak. J. Bot. 2009, 41, 1385–1390.

Hellal, F.A.; Zeweny, R.M.; Yassen, A.A. Evaluation of nitrogen and silicon application for enhancing yield production and nutrient uptake by wheat in clay soil. J. App. Sci. Res. 2012, 8, 686–692.

Ahmad, M.; El-Saeid, M.H.; Akram, M.A.; Ahmad, H.R.; Haroon, H.; Hussain, A. Silicon fertilization—A tool to boost up drought tolerance in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) crop for better yield. J. Plant Nutr. 2016, 39, 1283–1291. [CrossRef]

Ciecierski, W. Effect of silicon on biotic and abiotic stress mitigation in horticultural and field crops. In Proceedings of the International Symposium “Mikroelementy w rolnictwie i ´srodowisku”, Kudowa-Zdrój, Poland, 21–24 June 2016; p. 25.

CORN

Amin, M.; Ahmad, R.; Ali, A.; Hussain, I.; Mahmood, R.; Aslam, M.; Lee, D.J. Influence of silicon fertilization on maize performance under limited water supply. Silicon 2016, 10, 177–183. [CrossRef]

Liang, Y.; Nikolic, M.; Bélanger, R.; Gong, H.; Song, A. Effect of silicon on crop growth, yield and quality. In Silicon in Agriculture; Springer Science + Business Media: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2015; pp. 209–224.

DAIRY COWS

Radkowski, A.; Sosin-Bzducha, E.; Radkowska, I. Effects of silicon foliar fertilization of meadow plants on nutritional value of silage fed to dairy cows. J. Elem. 2017, 22, 1311–1322.

HORTICULTURE

Ciecierski, W. Effect of silicon on biotic and abiotic stress mitigation in horticultural and field crops. In Proceedings of the International Symposium “Mikroelementy w rolnictwie i ´srodowisku”, Kudowa-Zdrój, Poland, 21–24 June 2016; p. 25.

Zydlik, Z.; Pacholak, E.; Rutkowski, K. Effect of Actisil preparation on the growth of strawberries grown in the soil depleted by a long monoculture. Zesz. Probl. Post˛ep. Nauk Rol. 2009, 536, 259–265.

Jarosz, Z. Wpływ zró˙znicowanych dawek krzemu i manganu na wielko´s´c oraz skład chemiczny główek sałaty/The effect of different doses of silicon and manganese on the size and chemical composition of lettuce heads. Nauka Przyr. Technol. 2015, 9, 1. [CrossRef]

Ciecierski, W. Effect of silicon on biotic and abiotic stress mitigation in horticultural and field crops. In Proceedings of the International Symposium “Mikroelementy w rolnictwie i ´srodowisku”, Kudowa-Zdrój, Poland, 21–24 June 2016; p. 25.

Gembara, J.; Chełpi´ nski, P.; Mikiciuk, G.; Ochmian, I.; Sosnowska, M.; Lewandowski, J. Wpływ preparatu Actisil na ograniczenie p˛ekania i jako´s´c owoców czere´sni/The influence of the Actisil preparation on reducing cracking and the quality of sweet cherry fruits. Zesz. Probl. Post˛ep. Nauk Rol. 2009, 536, 81–86.

OILSEED RAPE

Artyszak, A.; Kuci´ nska, K. Silicon nutrition and crop improvement: Recent advances and future perspective In Silicon in Plants; Tripathi, D.K., Singh, V.P., Ahmad, P., Chauhan, D.K., Prasad, S.M., Eds.; CRC Press. London, UK; New York, NY, USA, 2016; pp. 297–319.

Gugała, M.; Sikorska, A.; Zarzecka, K.; Kapela, K.; Mystkowska, I. The effect of sowing method and biostimulators on autumn development and overwintering of winter rape. Acta Sci. Pol. Agric. 2017, 16, 111–120.

Velkov, N.; Petkova, V. Influence of Herbagreen mineral fertilizer on seed production of cucumber, melon and zucchini. Agric. Sci. Technol. 2014, 6, 63–67.

POTATO

Crusciol, C.A.C.; Pulz, A.L.; Lemos, L.B.; Soratto, R.P.; Lima, G.P.P. Effects of silicon and drought stress on tuber yield and leaf biochemical characteristics in potato. Crop Sci. 2009, 49, 949–954. [CrossRef]

Trawczy´ nski, C. Wpływ dolistnego nawo˙ zenia preparatem Herbagreen na plonowanie ziemniaków/The effect of foliar fertilization with Herbagreen on potato yielding. Ziemn. Polski 2013, 2, 29–33.

Kadalli, G.G.; Rudresha, B.A.; Prakash, N.B. Effect of diatomite as a silicon source on growth, yield and quality of potato. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon in Agriculture, Bengaluru, India, 24–28 October 2017; p. 136.

Vulavala, V.K.R.; Elbaum, R.; Yermiyahu, U.; Fogelman, E.; Kumar, A.; Ginzberg, I. Silicon fertilization of potato: Expression of putative transporters and tuber skin quality. Planta 2016, 243, 217–229. [CrossRef] [PubMed]

SOYBEAN

Kalandyk, A.; Waligórski, P.; Dubert, F. Zastosowanie biostymulatorów w łagodzeniu skutków suszy I innych stresów ´srodowiskowych u soi zwyczajnej (Glycine max L. Merr.)/Use of biostimulators in mitigating the effects of drought and other environmental stresses in soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Epistem. Czas. Nauk.-Kult. 2014, 22, 267–274.

Shwethkumari, U.; Prakash, N.B.; Gowda, J.; Chandrappa, M. Effect of foliar application of silicic acid on growth, field and quality of soybean [Glycine max. (L)]. In Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Silicon in Agriculture, Bengaluru, India, 24–28 October 2017; p. 146.

Liang, Y.; Nikolic, M.; Bélanger, R.; Gong, H.; Song, A. Effect of silicon on crop growth, yield and quality. In Silicon in Agriculture; Springer Science + Business Media: Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2015; pp. 209–224.

SUGAR BEET

Artyszak, A.; Gozdowski, D.; Kuci´ nska, K. The effect of calcium and silicon foliar fertilization in sugar beet. Sugar Tech 2016, 18, 109–114. [CrossRef]

Artyszak, A.; Gozdowski, D.; Kuci´ nska, K. The effect of foliar fertilization with marine calcite in sugar beet. Plant Soil Environ. 2014, 60, 413–417. [CrossRef]

Artyszak,A.;Gozdowski,D.; Kuci´nska,K. The effect of silicon foliar fertilization in sugar beet—Beta vulgaris (L.) ssp. vulgaris conv. crassa (Alef.) prov. altissima (Döll). Turk. J. Field Crops 2015, 20, 115–119.

Artyszak, A. Report on the Experience with Agriker Silicium for Agroconsult. Unpublished work, 2017.

Artyszak, A. Possibilities of Using Silicon for Foliar Fertilization of Sugar Beet; Wie´s Jutra: Warsaw, Poland, 2017; p. 128.

Hˇrivna, L.; Hernandez Kong, J.; Machálková, L.; Burešová, I.; Sapáková, E.; Kuˇcerová, J.; Šottníková, V. Vliv mimokoˇrenové výživy draslíkem a kˇremíkem na výnos a kvalitu cukrovky v nestandardních povˇetrnostních podmínkách roku 2014 a 2015/Effect of foliar nutrition of potassium and silicon on yield and quality of sugar beet in unusual windy conditions in 2014 and 2015. Listy Cukrov. Repar. 2017, 133, 182–187.

TOMATO

Fan X Y, Lin W P, Liu R, Jiang N H, Cai K Z. 2018. Physiological response and phenolic metabolism in tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) mediated by silicon under Ralstonia solanacearum infection. Journal of Integrative Agriculture, 17, 2160–2171.